Nature or Domain of Execution
As computing becomes ever more intricate, it has become essential to isolate application programs from their environment. This ensures programs can execute instructions and process data without negatively affecting their surroundings. To guarantee this separation, programs must have tamper-proof isolation as well as a reference monitor for every access attempt.
Symbolic execution is an integral part of modern testing techniques, debugging and automated program analysis. Yet its popularity and success have yet to be explicitly formalized. The main contribution of this paper is a formal explanation of symbolic execution through its transition system and an operational semantics model which models actual execution on concrete values.
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A symbolic configuration consists of the program statement to be executed, its substitution and a path condition which guarantees that every reachable symbolic configuration and state meets the path condition. Theorem 2.3 then states that for all possible inputs satisfying a path condition, an equivalent concrete execution exists with variables and follows the substitution made to that symbolic configuration.
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Correctness and completeness [LRA17] are defined as having a concrete execution with variables which satisfies the path condition. On the other hand, precision requires that for every symbolic execution path there exists an equivalent concrete execution such that its initial state meets all path conditions and its final state can be constructed from its starting state plus any generated substitution.